Recordings of selected Redundens have been published in CD and MP3 format, available at the bottom of this page.

Alternative recordings of Redundens can now be streamed or dowloaded from SoundCloud.

New, January 2013: Redundens 11a for piano, Redundens 13 for harpsichord. PDF scores are now available for Redundens 1b, Redundens 4, Redundens 7 and Redundens 11a.

The series of works collectively titled Redundens was begun in 2001. All the pieces take Arnold Schoenberg’s Three Pieces for Piano, Op.11 as their starting point: only the top line in Schoenberg's pieces is retained as an unaccompanied melody (or as a list of pitch classes if you’re more technically-minded.) Each set of pieces uses a different method of encoding this melody; by pitch, register, timbre, duration, dynamics, or other means.

Redundens marked with an asterisk have been published on CD or as an mp3.

Redundens 1

Each pitch class keeps the same register and duration throughout the piece, determined by the nature of their initial appearances in the original. An orchestra of 30 synthesiser patches play simultaneously; the dynamic of each patch changes randomly with each note.

Redundens 1a is Redundens 1 arranged for solo guitar.

Redundens 1b* is Redundens 1 for solo piano. Dynamics are unspecified. [score]

Redundens 1c* is Redundens 1 transcribed for solo piano by the program AKoff Music Composer, with the 'harmonics' option switched off.

Redundens 1d* is Redundens 1 transcribed for solo piano by the program AKoff Music Composer, with the 'harmonics' option switched on. The original pitches from Redundens 1 were then removed.

Redundens 1e is Redundens 1 arranged for pipe organ, with fifteen stops open at all times. The stops used change randomly, from one note to the next.

Redundens 1f is Redundens 1 arranged for pipe organ, with each note played on a single stop. The stop used changes randomly, from one note to the next.

Redundens 1g is Redundens 1 arranged for pipe organ, with each note played on anything from one to fifteen stops. The number and type of stops used changes randomly, from one note to the next.

Redundens 1h is Redundens 1 arranged for pipe organ, with fifteen stops open at all times. The stops used change randomly, at random intervals.

Redundens 1i* is Redundens 1 arranged for pipe organ, with each note played on a single stop. The stop used changes randomly, from one note to the next, from a prescribed list of sixteen stops.

Redundens 1j* is Redundens 1 arranged for pipe organ, with each note played on eight to sixteen stops. The number and type of stops used changes randomly, from one note to the next, from a prescribed list of sixteen stops.

Redundens 1k* is Redundens 1 arranged for flute, with each note transposed up one or two octaves to fit into the instrument's range, and dyads replaced by the actual pitch-class occurring in the original sequence.

Redundens 1l is Redundens 1 arranged for solo melodica, with a range of two-and-a-half octaves.

Redundens 1m* is Redundens 1l with certain notes selected by chance to be extended to four beats' duration, so that they may overlap with following notes.

Redundens 2

Each pitch class in the melody of Redundens 1 is substituted with a particular microtonal chord, within a narrow pitch range. Instrumentation varies throughout. Fixed durations and rhythms are removed.

Redundens 2a* substitutes each pitch class in the melody of Redundens 1 with a particular tone cluster on a piano. Fixed durations and rhythms are removed.

Redundens 2b substitutes each pitch class in the melody of Redundens 1 with an 11-note cluster, consisting of all pitches within an octave except the original pitch, played on a pipe organ. Common notes in each successive chord are held rather than repeated. Fixed durations and rhythms are removed.

Redundens 3

The melody of Redundens 1 is played with differences in durations, rhythms, and pitch removed. Each pitch class is replaced by a particular combination of synthesiser patches, all playing the same pitch throughout.

Redundens 3a replaces each pitch class with a particular microtonal overtone structure for a single pitch played throughout on a single synthesiser patch. Durations, rhythms, and dynamics are constant.

Redundens 3b* replaces each pitch class with a particular dynamic for a single pitch played throughout on piano. Durations and rhythms are constant.

Redundens 3c replaces each pitch class with a particular stop on a pipe organ, for a single pitch played throughout. Durations and rhythms are constant.

Redundens 3d replaces each pitch class with a particular stop on a pipe organ, for a single pitch played throughout. Durations and rhythms are constant; each note is held for the duration of two notes.

Redundens 3e replaces each pitch class with a particular stop on a pipe organ, played for a particular duration, for a single pitch played throughout.

Redundens 3f* replaces each pitch class with a particular duration and a particular preceding silence, for a single pitch played throughout. Each note is played on a single stop, which changes at random with each successive note, from a prescribed list of sixteen stops.

Redundens 3g* replaces each pitch class with a distinct dynamic proportional to a particular duration, for a single, repeated sound played throughout - in this case, a set of four suspended cymbals.

Redundens 3h replaces each pitch class with a corresponding number of identical drums for the same note, with all durations equal.

Redundens 4*

The melody's sequence of pitch-classes from Redundens 1 is played with durations and rhythms removed, always making the smallest leap possible from one note to the next. For solo piano. [score]

Redundens 4a plays the sequence of pitch-classes from Redundens 1 with durations and rhythms removed, always making the smallest leap possible from one note to the next. For pipe organ, with each of the twelve pitch-classes assigned a particular stop.

Redundens 5*

The melody's sequence of pitch-classes from Redundens 1 is played with durations and rhythms removed, within the space of a common octave. Played on piano in the range.

Redundens 5a* plays the sequence of pitch-classes from Redundens 1 with durations and rhythms removed, within the space of a common octave. Played on pipe organ with each note played on a single stop, which changes at random with each successive note, from a prescribed list of sixteen stops. Changes in stop may cause changes in register.

Redundens 5b* plays the sequence of pitch-classes from Redundens 1 with durations and rhythms removed, within the space of a common octave. Played on pipe organ with each note played on a single stop, which changes at random with each successive note, from a prescribed list of sixteen stops. All stops play within the same register.

Redundens 5c plays the sequence of pitch-classes from Redundens 1 with durations and rhythms removed, retuned microtonally within the space of a perfect fifth.

Redundens 5d-5h are identical to Redundens 5, except that each piece is transposed to a new octave.

Redundens 5i plays the pitch sequence from Redundens 5 in all octaves of a piano simultaneously.

Redundens 5j* plays the pitch sequence from Redundens 5 in all octaves of a piano, each freely in its own time.

Redundens 6*

The melody of Redundens 5 is split between two octaves, alternating from one note to the next. For pipe organ, with each note duration extended to two note-lengths.

Redundens 6a splits the melody of Redundens 5 between two octaves, alternating from one note to the next. For solo piano.

Redundens 6b splits the melody of Redundens 5 between two octaves, alternating from one note to the next. The higher octave is shifted one beat back to produce intervals. For solo piano.

Redundens 6c splits the melody of Redundens 5 between two "voices" within a common octave, alternating from one note to the next. The second voice is shifted one beat back to produce intervals. Unisons are played as a single note at half duration. For solo piano.

Redundens 6d splits the melody of Redundens 5 between four octaves, changing from one note to the next, in repeated ascending order. For solo piano.

Redundens 6e splits the melody of Redundens 5 between four octaves, changing from one note to the next, in repeated ascending order. Each octave's voice is shifted back to produce a series of 4-voice chords. For solo piano.

Redundens 6f splits the melody of Redundens 5 between four voices within a common octave, changing from one note to the next. Each octave's voice is shifted back to produce a series of chords. Duplicated notes are removed, with durations made proportional to the number of notes in each chord. For solo piano.

Redundens 6g splits the melody of Redundens 5 between four voices within a common octave, changing from one note to the next. Each octave's voice is shifted back to produce a series of chords. Duplicated notes are removed, with durations made inversely proportional to the number of notes in each chord. For solo piano.

Redundens 6h splits the melody of Redundens 5 between four voices within a common octave, changing from one note to the next. Each voice is shifted back to produce a series of chords, with alternate chords split between octaves. Duplicated notes are removed, with durations made inversely proportional to the number of notes in each chord. For solo piano.

Redundens 6i* splits the melody of Redundens 5 between four voices within a common octave, changing from one note to the next. Each octave's voice is shifted back to produce a series of chords. Duplicated notes are removed, with all durations equal. For solo piano.

Redundens 6j* splits the melody of Redundens 5 between two voices within a common octave, alternating from one note to the next. The second voice is shifted one beat back to produce intervals. Unisons are doubled two octaves lower, and played at half duration. For solo piano.

Redundens 6k* splits the melody of Redundens 5 between five voices, changing from one note to the next. Each voice is assigned to a different octave.

Redundens 7*

The melody of Redundens 4 is split between two voices, alternating from one note to the next. The second voice is then shifted back one beat to produce a series of intervals. Unisons are played as a single note at half duration. For solo piano. [score]

Redundens 7a splits the melody of Redundens 4 between four voices, rotating from one note to the next. The voices are shifted back one to three beats to produce a series of 4-voice chords in close position. All chord durations are equal.

Redundens 7b splits the melody of Redundens 4 between four voices, rotating from one note to the next. The voices are shifted back one to three beats to produce a series of 4-voice chords in close position. Chord durations are directly proportional to number of notes in the chord.

Redundens 8*

replaces each pitch class with a short sound sample, selected using the random function on the Freesound website. Dynamics, amplitudes, and rhythmic durations are equal throughout, although tempo may vary.

Redundens 8a replaces each pitch class with a different percussion instrument as part of a drum kit. Dynamics, loudness, rhythmic durations and tempo are equal throughout.

Redundens 9

replaces each pitch class with a harmonic of a common base frequency.

Redundens 9a replaces each pitch class with a harmonic of a common base frequency, using a simple waveform held over four successive pitch durations to produce varying harmonies and/or timbres.

Redundens 9b is the same as Redundens 9a, but each occurring frequency has an extended decay time.

Redundens 9c is the same as Redundens 9b, but using only prime-numbered harmonics.

Redundens 10

expresses each of the twelve pitch-classes as the product of three variables, drawn from the following attributes: pitch, duration, loudness, timbre. Two of the variables are assigned two possible values, with the third variable given three possible values. The melody of Redundens 5 may then be encoded into the following matrix of values:

  • Pitch: high, low, (middle)
  • Duration: short, long, (medium)
  • Loudness: loud, soft, (medium)
  • Timbre: A, B, (C)

Other values or attributes may be assigned to these variables.

Redundens 11

preserves each pitch class but transposes them to produce series of rising intervals, in repeatedly ascending figures of five notes each.

Redundens 11a* preserves each pitch class but transposes them to produce series of rising intervals, in repeatedly ascending figures of four notes each. [score]

Redundens 12

I have some files labelled Redundens 12 but as of January 2013 I cannot remember what those files are supposed to be doing.

Redundens 13*

As with Redundens 1, each pitch class keeps the same register and duration throughout the piece, determined by the nature of their initial appearances in the original. Each pitch class may then appear on only one of two given beats within a ten-beat rhythmic framework. For harpsichord.

Redundens on CD and MP3

Two small editions of CDs have been privately pressed of pieces from Redundens, one of works for (virtual) piano, one of works for organ.

The following Redundens can be downloaded as mp3 files now. Hopefully, more will be ready soon.

Redundens 1b for piano
(15'41", 21.60 MB)

Redundens 1k for flute
(14'33", 22.33 MB)

Redundens 1m for melodica
(13'25", 16.74 MB)
PDF of sheet music

Redundens 3g for four cymbals
(8'08", 16.10 MB)

Redundens 4 for piano
(8'26", 12.99 MB)

Redundens 6 for organ
(11'01", 15.33 MB)

Redundens 6i for piano
(3'12", 2.46 MB)
PDF of sheet music

Redundens 6j for piano
(4'16", 6.84 MB)

Redundens 7 for piano
(4'46", 7.32 MB)

Redundens © Ben.Harper 2001-13. Recorded in Your Dad’s Den, Fitzroy, Brunswick, Hackney, Lewisham and Stoke Newington. A Cooky La Moo production, edition numbers 21 & 24.